Kidney Stone: Intro, Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.

Kidney Stone Intro, Causes, Types, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment.

Kidney is an organ in human body that helps to remove waste and fluid from the blood. 

This waste is removed from the body in the form of urine. This way the kidney makes sure that the blood is purified and no waste is being circulated in the body.

However, if there is not enough fluid in the body and there is too much of waste being generated, the kidney won’t be able to remove it.

These waste then will accumulate near the kidney and stick to it. 

This clump of waste is called kidney stone.

What is kidney stone?

Kidney stone or renal calculi are solid waste made of chemicals in the urine. 

These crystals originate in the kidney, but they can travel to other parts of the body on the urinary path. They can travel and then start to grow in ureters, bladder, or urethra.

Kidney stones usually do not cause pain. If these stones are small, they can pass through the urine and exit the body without causing much trouble to it. 

However, if they do not pass through the urine or exit the body, they can get stuck up in the path and cause pain to the patient.

The stone that has moved down on the urinary path can cause back up of the urine. This can cause severe pain to the body.

Also Read: Acne: Intro, Causes, diagnosis, Treatment & Complications 


Anybody can be diagnosed of kidney stone. However, men are most likely to form these crystals in their kidney than women.

Not drinking enough water, taking too much of salt or sugar and not exercising can be some general reason of this disease.

Other factors that can cause this disease include:

  • Family history of this disease
  • Obesity
  • You have a history with kidney stone
  • You take too much of protein or sodium
  • You have some disease that affects your bowel or joints
  • Hyperparathyroid condition
  • Gastric bypass surgery
  • You take diuretics or calcium-based medicines.


There are mainly 4 types of kidney stone. The pain, symptoms, and treatment of these crystals depends upon the type of stone you have.

1.Calcium oxalate:

This is the most common type of kidney stone. This forms in the kidney when you have taken too much oxalate oriented food or too less of calcium.

Taking enough calcium and restraining oxalate foods can help you prevent this disease.

2.Uric acid:

This is a common type of stone found in men more than women. A purine rich food or chemotherapy can cause this disease.

This stone happens when the urine is too acidic. 


This stone is mainly found in women. Women with urinary tract infection are on risk of having this disease.

These stones are relatively larger and causes kidney infection because of urine back up.


This stone is a rare type. This can happen to either man or woman. They are cased by a genetic disorder called cystinuria. 

Due to cystinuria, a natural acid called cystine can leak into the urine from the kidney. This causes crystals in the body which are kidney stones.


The most common symptom for kidney stones is stomach ache.

Some symptoms of kidney stone include:

  • Blood in the urine
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Cloudy urine
  • Urine that stinks
  • Chills
  • Backache 
  • Pain in either side of stomach


For diagnosis, you will require to tell your doctor about your medical history and your family’s history with the disease.

Then after you will be physically examined and run some medical tests such as:

  • Blood test
  • Urinalysis
  • Ultrasound
  • Abdominal CT scan and X-ray
  • MRI scan of kidney and abdomen

Your doctor can adjust medical tests according to the finding of your stone. It depends on what kind you stone you have.


Treatment of the stone depends on what kind of kidney stone you have and the size of the stone.

If your kidney stone is small, your doctor might only give you some painkillers to minimize the pain. They will advise you to manage your diet and drink a lot of fluid.

This is done so that the stones can be passed on with urine and exit the body. 

However, if the stones are big, you may be at risk of infection and uncontrolled pain. At this time, the doctor will advise you surgery.

You may receive any of these surgical treatment depending on the nature of your stone:

  • Lithotripsy
  • Tunnel surgery 
  • Ureteroscopy

The bottom line

To prevent kidney stone, the most you can do is to drink plenty of liquid and have a balanced diet.

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