Migraine — Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, & Treatment

Migraine — Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, & Treatment

Headaches are commonplace and are experienced by almost everyone.

They may range from lenient bouts to severe episodes in their intensities.

Headaches are categorized into different types based on the major area of impact.

For instance, cluster headaches, are mostly limited one side of head, especially eye, while sinus headaches span throughout cheekbones, nose bridge and forehead.

However, migraines are most prevalent and severe types of headache.

Migraine and its Symptoms

Migraine is generally characterized by throbbing or pounding pain in head.

It arises in one side of the head or may span the whole skull area.

These headaches often last for 4 – 72 hours, although it may depress entire week with its pre and post attack symptoms.

Normally, it affects adolescents, youngsters and those in early adulthood.

However, other than headache there are several other symptoms that appear before, during or after the main migraine attack.

Based on its symptomatic occurrences it is typically divided into three phases.

Phases of Migraine are as follows:


The prodrome phase usually occurs some hours or even days before the migraine attack.

The prodrome phase has certain subtle symptoms, such as:

  • Yawning
  • Fatigue
  • Mood swings.
  • Drowsiness
  • AURA

This phase of migraine attack is not commonly experienced by everyone.

It is rather felt by those struggling with a severe stage of migraine.

Major symptoms of Aura phase are:

  • Flashes of light
  • Numbness in hands
  • Zigzag vision
  • Vertigo
  • Confusion
  • Feeble muscle
  • Light and noise sensitivity
  • Nausea
  • Constipation


This phase occurs after the migraine attack is over.

The headache leaves other body parts affected as well.

It is identified by fatigue, sense of weakness and exhaustion

Also Read –  Stroke: Symptoms, Causes & Treatment

Causes Of Migraine

Our lifestyle and surroundings have forged conditions that make us vulnerable to various disorders and ailments.

Wherein stress and reckless diet take the dominant position in the list of stressors.

Major causes of Migraine are:

Stress and Anxiety

Chronic mental illnesses, such as stress, anxiety, and depression are great precursors of various psychosomatics disorders.

These ailments have a big part in triggering migraines and other pains.

Irregular sleep

Sleep disorders recently have become issues of high concern.

This is because of lack or excess of sleep is in many ways impairs our boy and its normal functioning.

It is quite likely that one may develop migraine or other types of headache.

Heedless diet

Our food plates are too engaged in those appetizing savouries, spicy snacks and fatty stuff which do nothing but deteriorate our health each day.

Our diet impacts our health and such food habits may lead to migraines and other ailments.

Weather Change

Drastic shift in weathers, may trigger headaches and worsen the cases of migraine attacks.

Thus, it is imperative to be cautious so that it does impact your health severely.


Mutations in certain genes may also be the reason for developing migraines.

Or a person with a family history of these headaches may perchance acquire it.

Hormonal changes,

Hormonal changes trigger migraines especially in women owing to the factors like menopause, menstruation, gestation etc. which involve alteration in Oestrogen levels.

Drugs and alcohol consumption,

Intake of drugs, alcohol and unnecessary pills incites these episodes of migraine which may consequently interfere normal functioning in our daily activities.

Diagnosis & Treatment of Migraine

Unfortunately, at present there is no treatment yet to eliminate migraine.

Medications, remedies, and therapies all aim at reducing the frequency and severity of the headaches.

Migraine consists of various other problems apart from headache such as constipation, anxiety, stress etc.

Nonetheless, mild headaches can be taken care of effectively even by home remedies instead of directly resorting to drugs and pills.

Effective home remedies to treat migraine:

Caffeine intake helps relieve from the symptoms of migraine. It also helps in improving the efficiency of painkillers.

Yoga and meditation soothe and relaxes the hurting nerves and helps in pain reduction.

Ibuprofen, No praxis, Acetaminophen are well-known painkillers and can be taken without any prescription. They may extinguish the pain to some extent.

Cold compress for about 20 minutes may help in migraine attacks or other types of headaches.

Sleeping in a dark room helps to reduce the intensity of the pain.

Riboflavin or vitamin B- 12, usually found in poultry products such as milk, meat etc. may lower the degrees of migraine attack. There are certain medications prescribed by the physicians to counter the migraine flushes.

However, such prescriptions are exceptionally done in severe cases.

Some medications recommended by doctors for migraines are:

Pain relievers

Acetaminophen combined with aspirin and caffeine are employed to counter migraine attacks.

However, these should not be taken by those having liver issues.

Ibuprofen and Nopraxin

These are popular painkillers and can be taken without even doctor’s recommendation.

However, these should be avoided by those having stomach disorders.

The point of note, however is that any medication should be adopted under the direction of your physician.

Because every drug has some or the other side effects associated with it.


Migraines are one of the headaches that may interrupt in our everyday activities and lower the productivity of a person.

Thus, it is better to avoid anything which may trigger the headache.

Healthy lifestyle and exercise are key to fitness and wellbeing and must be insisted upon to keep away from ailments.

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