The Coronavirus pandemic has now become one of the deadliest pandemic in the world. The Coronavirus pandemic has infected more than 124.2 million people throughout the world and caused nearly 2.8 million deaths worldwide.
Many countries started their research to develop vaccines to treat COVID-19 infection when the pandemic began, it took almost a year for many countries to develop vaccines.
Vaccines to treat coronavirus are finally developed and being successfully administered in many countries throughout the world, however only a handful of countries so far have been able to develop vaccines.
The USA, India, Russia and UK are the few handful countries in the world who have successfully developed vaccines, their vaccine has been exported to many countries so far for vaccine roll out programs.
Top 5 Coronavirus Vaccines in the World
This coronavirus vaccine is a joint venture between Pfizer of the USA and BioNTech of Germany, this vaccine is one of the most used vaccines throughout the world. The Pfizer-BioNtech mRNA vaccine is found to be pretty effective to treat coronavirus infection.
Pfizer-BioNtech vaccine is approved for individuals who are above the age of 16, its efficacy in peoples below 16 is yet to be reported.
mRNA vaccines teach our body’s cells about how to make protein which can trigger immune response without using live viruses which cause COVID-19 infection. The complete vaccine is administered in 2 doses, the single dose quantity is about 0.3mL.
Vaccine works best when 2 doses are administered, the 2nd dose is usually administered 21 days after the 1st dose. Many countries in the European Union, USA, Canada, Singapore, Chile and many countries in the Middle East are currently using this vaccine.
The vaccine required to be stored under a temperature of -80 to -60 degree Celsius.
Oxford AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is the most demanded vaccine to treat coronavirus vaccine. This vaccine is a joint venture of oxford pharma of UK and AstraZeneca pharma major of Sweden.
This vaccine is also manufactured and supplied in India and various other countries by Serum institute of India vaccine manufacturer.
This vaccine has weakened adenovirus from chimpanzees, which don’t cause major infection, but it triggers an immune response to release antibodies. Once a vaccine is injected it teaches the body to produce antibodies which further help the immune system to combat coronavirus.
This vaccine is also administered in 2 doses and the 2nd dose can be administered after 21 days of the 1st dose. Phase 3 trials of this vaccine have shown efficacy of 79%. This vaccine is very cheap as compared to Pfizer vaccine, and it can be stored at a temperature of 8 degree Celsius.
Currently, India, many European countries, Brazil, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and many middle eastern countries are using this vaccine.
It is a vaccine to treat coronavirus infection, this vaccine is developed and produced by pharmaceutical major Bharat biotech of India. The vaccine has completed phase 3 trials, and it has efficacy of about 81%
Currently, this vaccine is being administered in India and this vaccine is also administered in 2 doses, this vaccine has reported very low to rare side effects. And it is also found to be very effective against UK strain of coronavirus.
Covaxin uses inactivated or dead virus which triggers the immune response once injected, which helps to release antibodies to combat coronavirus. Covaxin can be stored in 2-8 degree Celsius temperature and this vaccine is also very cheap in price.
Since storage of covaxin is effortless and its price is very cheap, this vaccine can be extremely useful in developing and low-income countries to start their vaccine roll out program.
Sputnik V is developed by Gamaleya Research Institute, a Russian pharmaceutical company and its trials have been conducted in India by Hyderabad pharmaceutical company Dr. Reddy’s laboratory. Phase 3 trials of sputnik V have shown an efficacy rate of 91%, and currently it is the world’s only 3rd vaccine which has an efficacy rate of above 90%.
This vaccine uses 2 versions of adenovirus which has been further modified and the gene which causes cold has been removed from the virus, and the gene is replaced with spike protein.
Once the vaccine is injected, human adenovirus acts as a vehicle to penetrate the code into cells which triggers the immune response. This process teaches the immune system to release antibodies which can combat against real coronavirus.
There are no major side effects associated with the Sputnik V vaccine, however about 15% individuals who took the vaccine reported redness in the vaccinated area and felt a slight headache which went away after 24 hours.
Moderna’s vaccine is being developed by Moderna pharma major based in Massachusetts, US in partnership with National Institutes of Health and the vaccine is also known as mRNA-1273.
The vaccine has completed phase 3 trials and trials were conducted on 30,000 volunteers. The phase 3 trials of the vaccine have shown a promising efficacy rate of 94%, and it is one of the 3 vaccines in the world which has an efficacy rate above 90%.
Moderna’s vaccine is administered in 2 doses, the 2nd dose can be injected 28 days after the 1st dose. Studies have shown vaccines will protect individuals from coronavirus for at least one year or even up to one decade.
Each shot of vaccine contains 0.5 ml of vaccine and the vaccine needs to be warmed at room temperature before injection.
Moderna’s vaccine is produced in the USA, the vaccine has been approved in the USA, Canada and various other countries.